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Following France's adoption of the brand new 8x50R Lebel smokeless powder cartridge with its Model 1886 Lebel rifle, Germany began an emergency development of a rifle with the ability to fire ammunition loaded with powder similar. In 1888, the (gewehr) model 88 rifle was created with its brand new 7.90x57 ammunition: the patron 88 to replace their old Mauser model 1871/84 rifles.

At that time, the Ottoman Empire had already adopted for a year the Mauser 1887 rifle, itself derived from the 71/84, whose 9.5x60R cartridge, loaded with black powder, has become totally obsolete.

The smokeless cartridge develops much higher pressures than black powder and the ballistic range is multiplied by 3. Smokeless powder also has the important advantage of less clogging the barrels compared to old black powder ammunition where after a small series shots, it becomes mandatory to clean the combustion residues that clog the barrel.

The Ottoman Empire, having signed a technological upgrade clause with the Mauser firm on its order for infantry weapons, was therefore able to take advantage of the technological development brought by smokeless powder (PSF). In 1890 Mauser developed for the Ottoman Empire the Model 1890 rifle . The latter is derived from the Belgian model 1889.


Germany having a policy of not exporting its precious Patrone 88 cartridges considered superior to other models, therefore proposed an equivalent cartridge  of substantially the same ballistic performance: the 7.65x53 Mauser used by Belgium with their Model 1889, originally designed with a rounded nose cone, like the Patrone 88. The new 7.65x53 cartridge was supplied to the Ottomans with their new Mauser Model 1890 rifles. with the German powder "Gewehr Blatchen Pulve" (1) like all its contemporaries until the 1930s it propels a rounded 210 grain warhead and the range is three times greater than that of its black powder ancestor, the 9.5x60R cartridge .


A first type 7.65x53 5 cartridge magazine blade. Cupro-nickel jacketed 210 grain round warhead.

In 1903 Germany develops for its cartridge of 7.92x57 the ball "S" (Spitzgeschoß) of ogival form, lighter and faster than its sister with rounded ogive. This new cartridge will enter service in the German army in 1904. Following this ballistic improvement, the Ottomans could also benefit from a cartridge with a similar design in their regulation caliber of 7.65x53. The old round warhead of 210 grains will be replaced by a pointed "S" bullet of 154 grains which, more powerful than its first version, will equip the whole of the Ottoman army at the beginning of the year 1908.


A loader blade mounted with 5 second type "S" bullet cartridges. A cupro-nickel jacketed 154-grain warhead.

Following the adoption of this new ogival cartridge, the Ottoman Mauser rifles 1890, 1893 and 1903 were modified. The sights of these rifles will be changed to a sight modeled on the new performance of the "S" bullet. See model 1903 appendix to see the two different models.

This 7.65x53mm Mauser cartridge will be used by other countries such as Belgium or Argentina and will remain in service for many years in their armies. In the former territory of the Ottoman Empire, it is not uncommon to find these casings fired at historic battle sites of the First World War. In dry regions such as Syria or Palestine, these casings are sometimes completely preserved from any alteration.

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On the base of the first type bullet we can observe several markings.

At 12 p.m., the inscription Onsmali Maouzer: ماوزر

At 8 o'clock, is marked in Arabic characters, 314:  ٣١٤ corresponding to the last 3 digits of the year 1314 of the Hegira or 1896 of the Georgian calendar. This date is underlined by the calligraphic inscription  سن Sana meaning "year"


On the base of the second type bullet the markings are different.

At 12 p.m., the inscription Onsmali Maouzer: ماوزر

On the right side, we find what seems to be the letter و (w). Can be a way to identify a lot.

On the left side, a Turkish star crescent.

Below, the year 1320 of the Hegira is the year 1907 of the Western calendar.



7.65x53 Mauser cartridges found around Seddülbahir where clashes against ANZAC took place. Ahmet Uslu Müzesi

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